CanadaEmily TsuiGlobal Horizons September 27, September 26, Emily Tsui After the end of Second World War, despite having become a relatively large military and economic power, Canada was hesitant to take on greater international responsibility for fear of getting involved in a prolonged conflict which would result in more casualties. Laurent noted in January that a continuation of international defense commitments was vital for the protection of Canadian domestic interests. Originally, this sentiment did not reflect that of the Canadian public.
The most serious threat to both the internal stability and the international rehabilitation of Serbia during the late s was the deteriorating situation in the province of Kosovo.
Kosovo was the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as the site of the Turkish defeat of the Serbs in and the Serbian victory over the Turks in The Kosovo Liberation Army KLA emerged inand its sporadic attacks on Serbian police and politicians steadily escalated over the next two years.
Serbian special police and, eventually, Yugoslav armed forces attempted to reassert control over the region. Atrocities committed by the police, paramilitary groups, and the army caused a wave of refugees to flee the area, and the situation became well publicized through the international media.
The Contact Group—an informal coalition of the United StatesGreat Britain, GermanyFranceItalyand Russia—demanded a cease-fire, the withdrawal of Yugoslav and Serbian forces from Kosovo, the return of refugees, and unlimited access for international monitors.
The KLA regrouped and rearmed during the cease-fire and renewed its attacks. The Yugoslav and Serbian forces responded with a ruthless counteroffensive and engaged in a program of ethnic cleansing.
The United Nations UN Security Council condemned this excessive use of force and imposed an arms embargo, but the violence continued.
Diplomatic negotiations began in Rambouillet, France, in February but broke down the following month. The NATO bombing campaign lasted 11 weeks and eventually expanded to Belgradewhere significant damage to the Serbian infrastructure occurred.
In June NATO and Yugoslavia signed a peace accord outlining troop withdrawal and the return of nearly one million ethnic Albanians as well as anotherdisplaced within the province.
Most Serbs left the region, and there were occasional reprisals against those who remained. UN peacekeeping forces were deployed in Kosovo, which came under UN administration. Tensions between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo continued into the 21st century. Sporadic violence occurred, as when anti-Serb riots broke out in March in numerous cities and towns in the Kosovo region.
The riots claimed some 30 lives and resulted in the displacement of more than 4, Serbs and other minorities. In February Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia Yugoslavia had ceased to exist ingiving way to the federation of Serbia and Montenegro, which itself dissolved in The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO / ˈ n eɪ t oʊ /; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (by this time, consisting of the Republics of Montenegro and Serbia), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from 24 March , and .
NATO forces have been at the forefront of the humanitarian efforts to relieve the suffering of the many thousands of refugees forced to flee Kosovo by the Serbian ethnic cleansing campaign.
In the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (1) NATO troops built refugee camps, refugee reception centres and emergency feeding stations, as well as moving .
The current debates about NATO’s actions against Slobodan Milosevic demonstrate the usefulness of the past for thinking about the present. Both critics and defenders of the bombing attacks on Yugoslavia are attempting to draw lessons from history to support their points of view.
An Historic Intervention: The US in Kosovo. In , a civil war between Kosovo and Serbia broke over Kosovo's independence. The Serbs, led by Slobodan Milosevic, had decided on a campaign of ethnic cleansing &endash; to rid Kosovo of all Albanian Muslims.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in , in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April