Early humans and Stone Age society The controversies in Southern African history begin with the discovery of a fossilized hominin skull in a limestone cave at Taung near the Harts River north of Kimberley infollowed in by discoveries in similar caves in the Transvaal now Limpopo and Gauteng provinces and Northern Cape province, in South Africa.
Beforethe Republic of Benin was known as Dahomey, its French colonial name. In the precolonial period, Dahomey was the name of the most powerful kingdom on the Slave Coast, which extended along the Bight of Benin to Lagos.
Today Benin includes not only the ancient Fon kingdom of Dahomey but also areas inhabited by many other groups. The nation's lack of cultural homogeneity is due to geographic factors and a history that has included waves of migration, competition between precolonial kingdoms, four centuries of commercial relations with Europe, and the impact of colonialism.
In addition to language and ethnicity, there are divisions along lines of occupation and religion. The country has an area of 43, square milessquare kilometers.
There are five distinct geographic zones. In the south, coconut palms grow on a narrow coastal strip broken by lagoons and creeks. In the north, a plateau of fertile iron clay soil interspersed with marshy areas supports oil palms.
The central area is a wooded savanna with some hilly areas. The Atacora mountain chain in the northwest is the area of greatest elevation, while the northeast is part of the Niger river basin. Most of the country has a tropical climate with a dry season from November to April and a rainy season from May to October.
Rainfall and vegetation are heaviest in the south. The country is divided into six departments containing eighty-four districts. The capital is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in nearby Cotonou, the largest city.
The current population is estimated to be about 6. The growth rate is high, and 48 percent of the people are less than fifteen years old. French is the national language, and English is taught in secondary schools. There are about fifty languages and dialects.
Most people speak at least two languages.
Approximately 36 percent of the population is illiterate. The flag first flown after independence was green, red, and yellow.
Green denoted hope for renewal, red stood for the ancestors' courage, and yellow symbolized the country's treasures. Inthe flag was changed to green with a red star in the corner. Inthe original flag was reestablished to symbolize the rejection of Marxist ideology.
History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation. Although several ethnic groups are assumed to be indigenous, migration that began four hundred years ago brought Aja-speaking peoples the Gbe into the southern part of the country, where they founded several kingdoms.
The Yoruba presence in the southern and central regions also dates back several hundred years. The Bariba migrated west from what is now Nigeria and established a cluster of states. In the northwest, Benin several indigenous groups remained independent of Bariba control.Income inequality: Income is defined as household disposable income in a particular leslutinsduphoenix.com consists of earnings, self-employment and capital income and public cash transfers; income taxes and social security contributions paid by households are deducted.
Migration, Remittances, and Educational Stratification among Blacks in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South Africa. Lu, Yao; Treiman, Donald J..
This paper extends previous work on family structure and children’s education by conceptualizing migration as a distinct form of family disruption that reduces parental input but brings substantial economic benefits through remittances.
Abstract. Let us begin with an assumption: the most fitting category with which to analyse the patterns of stratification within modern South Africa are Weberian estates.
Source: World Values Survey, If we collapse upper and lower middle class, a total of % of South Africans and % of black South Africans identified themselves as belonging to the middle class in About us. John Benjamins Publishing Company is an independent, family-owned academic publisher headquartered in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
More. South Africa is emphasized because this country is trying to dismantle a system of social stratification called apartheid. Apartheid was a system in which skin color overwhelmingly.