There are so many critical factors and variables that might have a positive, negative, or neutral association with project performance; and not everyone agrees on which factors matter most. In the recent annual review of Results and Performance of the World Bank Group RAP17we conducted a structured literature review to find out which factors associated with better and worse project outcomes have garnered the most consensus among researchers.
Received Nov 23; Accepted Jun This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Early or timely initiation of breastfeeding is crucial in preventing newborn deaths and influences childhood nutrition however remains low in South Asia and the factors and barriers warrant greater consideration for improved action.
Twenty-five studies meeting inclusion criteria were included for review. Structured thematic analysis based on leading frameworks was undertaken to understand factors and barriers.
Conclusions Whilst some barriers manifest similarly across the region some factors are context-specific thus tailored interventions are imperative. Initiatives halting factors and directed towards contextual barriers are required for greater impact on newborn survival and improved nutrition in the South Asia region.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Countries within the region have made significant progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4 MDG 4 to reduce the under-five mortality rate U5MR by two-thirds by [ 2 ]. However the regional U5MR remains off target at 58 deaths per live births compared to the target of 42 deaths per live births [ 3 ].
The burden is unequal within the region: A recent systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that breastfeeding initiation after the first hour of birth doubles the risk of neonatal mortality [ 5 ].
The evidence, drawn from meta-analysis and over 63 developing countries, shows that early initiation of breastfeeding prevents newborn infections, averts newborn death due to sepsis, pneumonia, diarrhoea and hypothermia, and facilitates sustained breastfeeding [ 8 ].
Insufficient attention is afforded to the public health issue of early or timely initiation of breastfeeding, and the causes of poor practice, even though this preventive intervention is highly cost-effective [ 679 ]. Existing systematic literature reviews on early initiation primarily draw on evidence from developed countries and on the effect of skin-to-skin contact on breastfeeding rates [ 12 — 15 ].
It is important to understand the factors associated with delayed breastfeeding initiation and the existing barriers and facilitators to early initiation in order to design and deliver effective strategies to improve the practice [ 7 ] and accelerate progress in newborn survival.
Methods Protocol of the systematic literature review was proposed in the University of Melbourne Master of Public Health research project and was approved by the University prior to commencement. The search was undertaken from July to September, The methods and reporting were developed and conducted with systematic methodology and consistent with the PRISMA reporting guidelines [ 16 ].
Source of literature This drew on published literature in the electronic bibliographic databases of: Search terms Search terms were applied with various Boolean operators for three core concepts: The various search terms are: A detailed search strategy of one database is presented in Additional file 1.
Studies conducted among South Asian women living in other regions Studies published in or after In English language Full-text not accessible Published quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies Studies not demonstrating a clear research methodology - commentaries, letters and editorials.For example, This section of the literature review examines factors influencing whether or not a person is likely to conform that are (1) in the situation, and (2) within the individual.” 8.
. Which factors associated with better and worse World Bank project outcomes have garnered the most consensus among researchers?
Use the tool created for this review to explore these factors.
A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.
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contains the actual review of literature, focusing on the main results of prior studies. In that section we present a discussion of nine major factors that affect strategy implementation. Section four also contains a review of existing models and frameworks of strategy implementation.