Recently an Ohio newspaper, the Akron Beacon Journal, printed a series of articles attacking homeschooling. They claim that little is known about homeschoolers and suggest the government should tightly monitor and regulate the movement.
Ecological fallacy[ edit ] An ecological fallacy is committed when one draws an inference from data based on the premise that qualities observed for groups necessarily hold for individuals; for example, "if countries with more Protestants tend to have higher Fallacies in the newspaper rates, then Protestants must be more likely to commit suicide.
For a given fallacy, one must either characterize it by means of a deductive argumentation schema, which rarely applies the first prong of the fork or one must relax definitions and add nuance to take the actual intent and context of the argument into account the other prong of the fork.
Nevertheless, informal fallacies apply to both deductive and non-deductive arguments. Though the form of the argument may be relevant, fallacies of this type are the "types of mistakes in reasoning that arise from the mishandling of the content of the propositions constituting the argument".
Here the most important issue concerns inductive strength or methodology for example, statistical inference. In the absence of sufficient evidence, drawing conclusions based on induction is unwarranted and fallacious. With the backing of empirical evidencehowever, the conclusions may become warranted and convincing at which point the arguments are no longer considered fallacious.
Hasty generalisation often follows a pattern such as: X is true for A. X is true for B. Therefore, X is true for C, D, etc. While never a valid logical deduction, if such an inference can be made on statistical grounds, it may nonetheless be convincing.
This is because with enough empirical evidence, the generalization is no longer a hasty one. Relevance fallacy[ edit ] The fallacies of relevance are a broad class of informal fallacies see the navbox belowgenerically represented by missing the point: Presenting an argument, which may be soundbut fails to address the issue in question.
Argumentum ex silentio[ edit ] An argument from silence features an unwarranted conclusion advanced based on the absence of data. Examples of informal fallacies[ edit ] Main article: Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B. Slippery slope[ edit ] Definition: The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but in fact there is not enough evidence for that assumption.
Where mathematical fallacies are subtle mistakes in reasoning leading to invalid mathematical proofs, measurement fallacies are unwarranted inferential leaps involved in the extrapolation of raw data to a measurement-based value claim. The ancient Greek Sophist Protagoras was one of the first thinkers to propose that humans can generate reliable measurements through his "human-measure" principle and the practice of dissoi logoi arguing multiple sides of an issue.
Knowledge value measurement fallacy[ edit ] Increasing availability and circulation of big data are driving proliferation of new metrics for scholarly authority,   and there is lively discussion regarding the relative usefulness of such metrics for measuring the value of knowledge production in the context of an "information tsunami".
For example, limitations of the journal impact factor JIF are well documented,  and even JIF pioneer Eugene Garfield notes, "while citation data create new tools for analyses of research performance, it should be stressed that they supplement rather than replace other quantitative-and qualitative-indicators.
A naturalistic fallacy can occur for example in the case of sheer quantity metrics based on the premise "more is better"  or, in the case of developmental assessment in the field of psychology, "higher is better. For example, the Scopus and Web of Science bibliographic databases have difficulty distinguishing between citations of scholarly work that are arms-length endorsements, ceremonial citations, or negative citations indicating the citing author withholds endorsement of the cited work.
This creates a possibility that low productivity measurements using the tool may constitute argument from silence fallacies, to the extent that such measurements are supported by the absence of book citation data.
Ecological fallacies can be committed when one measures scholarly productivity of a sub-group of individuals e.Dec 18, · Few issues more powerfully elicit the liberal faith in government's salvific power than gun control.
Whenever a mass casualty shooting occurs in the United States, gun control advocates cry that. The Dangerous World of Logical Fallacies By Mario Livio, Contributor.
Astrophysicist. Some fallacies are very seductive, and avoiding them requires a close examination of the logic involved. A. What this handout is about This handout discusses common logical fallacies that you may encounter in your own writing or the writing of others. The handout provides definitions, examples, and tips on avoiding these fallacies.
Arguments Most academic writing tasks . Newspaper Logic: Akron Beacon Journal Attack on Homeschooling. Topics • Thinking Tools • Logic • Fallacies Recently an Ohio newspaper, Our purpose isn’t to point out all the fallacies in these articles. We want to equip you to do this yourself. The Logical Fallacies of Time Magazine’s “Technology Hoax” Article.
By AJ Juliani 17 Comments Decision Making the entire article is filled with logical fallacies to support the argument students in a local public school have told me of teachers who sit at their desks reading the newspaper while the class is expected to engage with.
Trump Fails Logic. More (Drew Angerer/Getty Images) These three fallacies represent just the most obvious of Trump's grievously destructive affronts against reason and science.
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