Overview Union flag In the presidential electionRepublicansled by Abraham Lincolnsupported banning slavery in all the U. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery. Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas ' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell 's votes centered in TennesseeKentuckyand Virginia.
Overview Union flag In the presidential electionRepublicansled by Abraham Lincolnsupported banning slavery in all the U. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to eventually abolish slavery.
The Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally, thus Lincoln was constitutionally elected president.
He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inaugurationseven slave states with cotton -based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, a total of 49 percent. Confederate Army flag Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession.
Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on " King Cotton " that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theaterthe battle was inconclusive from — Later, inLincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamationwhich made ending slavery a war goal.
InRobert E. Western successes led to Ulysses S. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T.
Sherman and his march to the sea. The last significant battles raged around the Siege of Petersburg. While the military war was coming to an end, the political reintegration of the nation was to take another 12 years, known as the Reconstruction Era. The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars.
Railroads, the telegraphsteamships and iron-clad ships, and mass-produced weapons were employed extensively. The mobilization of civilian factories, mines, shipyards, banks, transportation and food supplies all foreshadowed the impact of industrialization in World War IWorld War II and subsequent conflicts.
It remains the deadliest war in American history. From toit is estimated thattosoldiers died,  along with an undetermined number of civilians. Bradford wrote that the issue has been further complicated by historical revisionistswho have tried to offer a variety of reasons for the war.
The Republican Party was determined to prevent any spread of slavery, and many Southern leaders had threatened secession if the Republican candidate, Lincolnwon the election.
After Lincoln won, many Southern leaders felt that disunion was their only option, fearing that the loss of representation would hamper their ability to promote pro-slavery acts and policies. The strategy of the anti-slavery forces was containment—to stop the expansion and thus put slavery on a path to gradual extinction.
Historian Thomas Fleming points to the historical phrase "a disease in the public mind" used by critics of this idea, and proposes it contributed to the segregation in the Jim Crow era following emancipation. Slavery was illegal in much of the North, having been outlawed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
It was also fading in the border states and in Southern cities, but it was expanding in the highly profitable cotton districts of the rural South and Southwest.
Subsequent writers on the American Civil War looked to several factors explaining the geographic divide. Slave and free states Between andthe United States achieved a vast expansion of territory through purchase, negotiation, and conquest. At first, the new states carved out of these territories entering the union were apportioned equally between slave and free states.
It was over territories west of the Mississippi that the proslavery and antislavery forces collided. The Compromise of over California balanced a free-soil state with stronger fugitive slave laws for a political settlement after four years of strife in the s.
But the states admitted following California were all free: MinnesotaOregon and Kansas In the southern states the question of the territorial expansion of slavery westward again became explosive.
Crittenden, of the Crittenden Compromise Byfour doctrines had emerged to answer the question of federal control in the territories, and they all claimed they were sanctioned by the Constitution, implicitly or explicitly. The Crittenden Compromise of was an expression of this view.The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war (although a Declaration of War was never issued by either the United States Congress, nor the Congress of the Confederate States) fought in the United States from to As a result of the long-standing controversy over slavery, war broke out in April , when Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina.
In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both then and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was "the South". In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as "the North", both then and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was "the South".
Slaves No More: Three Essays on Emancipation and the Civil War [Ira Berlin, Barbara J. Fields, Steven F. Miller, Joseph P. Reidy, Leslie S. Rowland] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
The three essays in this volume present an introduction to history of the emancipation of the slaves during the Civil War.
The first essay traces the destruction of slavery by discussing the. As the introduction to this volume observes, events in Appalachia are often overlooked when studying the Civil War.
Save for Chickamauga, few large battles were fought in the region, with most of the action of the war occurring to the east and to the west of the mountains. The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States (U.S.) from to The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S.
history. Largely as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April , when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after.