Biography Early life and background Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi  was born on 2 October  into a Gujarati Hindu Modh Baniya family  in Porbandar also known as Sudamapuria coastal town on the Kathiawar Peninsula and then part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire. His father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi —served as the diwan chief minister of Porbandar state. His first two wives died young, after each had given birth to a daughter, and his third marriage was childless. As a child, Gandhi was described by his sister Raliat as "restless as mercury, either playing or roaming about.
Work not for a reward; but never cease to do thy work. The Bhagavad Gita2: Michel de Montaigne, Essays, "That our actions should be judged by our intentions," I: Cohen, Penguin, p. The State of Nature has a Law of Nature to govern it, which obliges every one: And Reason, which is that Law, teaches all Mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions.
Hobbes characterizes his completely empirical way of thinking very remarkably by the fact that, in his book De Principiis Geometrarum, he denies the whole of really pure mathematics, and obstinately asserts that the point has extension and the line breadth. Yet we cannot show him a point without extension or a line without breadth; hence we can just as little explain to him the a priori nature of mathematics as the a priori nature of right, because he pays no heed to any knowledge that is not empirical.
He grokked that this was one of the critical cusps in the growth of a being wherein contemplation must bring forth right action in order to permit further growth. You see everything in black and white!
Jack Ryan [Harrison Ford]: Not black and white Ritter, right and wrong! Clear and Present Danger [Paramount Pictures, ] Ethical goods are goods in relation to persons -- goods for persons.
There are multiple persons, and these are divided generally into self and others. Ethical goods thus fall into two categories: All ethical goods are autonomously defined by selves i. Thomas Jeffersonin a letter fromexpresses this nicely: But I consider our relations with others as constituting the boundaries of morality To ourselves, in strict language, we can owe no duties, obligation requiring also two parties.
Self-love, therefore, is no part of morality. Indeed it is exactly its counterpart. It is the sole antagonist of virtue, leading us constantly by our propensities to self-gratification in violation of our moral duties to others. By contrast, we find Immanuel Kant saying, " It is a good, but a non-moral good.
Non-moral goods are matters of ethical hortatives rather than imperatives, as explained in relation to the polynomic theory of value.
Kant is probably under the impression that self-preservation is a duty, and so suicide a sin, because of Christian ethics, not because of the eternal forms of reason to which he appeals.
Greek and Roman moralists rather admired certain kinds of suicide. But they were pagans. Even Dante excuses the suicide of virtuous pagans, such as Cato the Younger.
If suicide were morally wrongful, the only effective sanction against it would be of the sort threatened by Christianity: Punishment, however, only provides a prudential, not a moral, motive for goodness, as Kant well understood himself. The character of the action itself must be wrongful and the moral duty unconditioned.
Yet is Kant himself going to require the hero to preserve his own life when its sacrifice might save his honor, his fellows, or his Nation? Did Jesus have a duty to preserve his life when its Sacrifice would Save mankind? Even if Kant did not believe in Christian Redemption, it is hard to imagine him being able to sustain an argument that self-preservation is required in all circumstances.
On the other hand, we now tend to see suicide as the result of the evils that may drive a person to it. The evils are then the problem, not the person, and the remedy for attempted suicides is to address those.
Also, when we see suicide running in families, we realize that the component of mental difficulties may be significant. Confusion about moral and non-moral goods, goods for selves and good for others, produces characteristic fallacies, as follows: The fallacies of egoism are: Ayn Rand sounds like this, and many earlier moralists, such as Kant, posit a category of "duties to self," which Jefferson properly denies above.
Shortly after self-preservation, Kant gives us an even more problematic example of egoistic moralism: So we are required to become happy lest our unhappiness tempt us into doing wrong.
This is an extraordinary and absurd proposition.Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting.
Religious violence in India, especially in recent times, has generally involved Hindus and Muslims, although incidents of violence have also involved atheists, Christians . The nation’s current post-truth moment is the ultimate expression of mind-sets that have made America exceptional throughout its history.
This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the .
The American Empire. By Wade Frazier. Revised July Purpose and Disclaimer. Timeline. Introduction. The New World Before “Discovery,” and the First Contacts.
IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade or so, it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental has happened in world history. This week Donald Trump chose the wrong place and the wrong time to brag about MAGA. For its myriad faults, the UN General Assembly is probably the most objective place with which to evaluate the US’s position in the international community and the impact of the Trump presidency on it.