Mistrust Is the world a safe place or is it full of unpredictable events and accidents waiting to happen? The crisis is one of trust vs. During this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world in which they live.
A stage is a period in development in which people exhibit typical behavior patterns and establish particular capacities. The various stage theories share three assumptions: People pass through stages in a specific order, with each stage building on capacities developed in the previous stage.
Stages are related to age. Development is discontinuous, with qualitatively different capacities emerging in each stage. Of these stages, Freud believed that early childhood was the most important.
He believed that personality developed by about the age of five. In the early s, Erikson proposed a theory that describes eight distinct stages of development.
Erikson named the stages according to these possible outcomes: Mistrust In the first year after birth, babies depend completely on adults for basic needs such as food, comfort, and warmth. If the caretakers meet these needs reliably, the babies become attached and develop a sense of security.
Otherwise, they may develop a mistrustful, insecure attitude. Shame and Doubt Between the ages of one and three, toddlers start to gain independence and learn skills such as toilet training, feeding themselves, and dressing themselves. Depending on how they face these challenges, toddlers can develop a sense of autonomy or a sense of doubt and shame about themselves.Some of the major theories of child development are known as grand theories; they attempt to describe every aspect of development, often using a stage approach.
Others are known as mini-theories; they instead focus only on a fairly limited aspect of development such as cognitive or social growth. The psychological study of human development has led to the creation of several stage theories--models that explain the processes of intellectual maturation.
Stage theories are based on the idea that elements in systems move through a pattern of distinct stages over time and that these stages can be described based on their distinguishing characteristics.
Specifically, stages in cognitive development have a constant order of succession, later stages integrate the achievements of earlier stages, and each is characterized by a particular type of. Theories of Developmental Stages - STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT. In this stage, children begin to use language and other representational systems to conceive of, and even discuss, things or people who are not physically present.
The chief marker of this stage is what Piaget called egocentric thought. A significant proportion of theories within this discipline focus upon development during childhood, as this is the period during an individual's lifespan when the most change occurs.
Developmental psychologists study a wide range of theoretical areas, such as biological, social, emotion, and cognitive leslutinsduphoenix.com: Saul Mcleod. Developmental stage theories are theories that divide child development into distinct stages which are characterized by qualitative differences in behaviour.
There are a number of different views about the way in which psychological and physical development proceed throughout the life span. In addition to individual differences in development.