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Creativity represents a balance between knowledge and freeing oneself of that knowledge. Sternberg Psychologist and author Abstract In this article, creativity research is brought into focus for those involved in the practice of entrepreneurship.
The author provides a background on creativity research, how it is defined, and systems models that attempt to explain it. The author distinguishes between creative and innovative activities, and provides advice to entrepreneurs to help realize the creative potential of their organizations.
The author reinforces the view that entrepreneurs create new value by investing in ideas, and specific recommendations are made for creating supportive structures, building teams of creative individuals, and successfully championing ideas to acquire the resources they need to produce innovations.
Introduction Creativity, in the form of the ability to effectively generate novel solutions to relevant problems, can be a source of significant competitive advantage, especially in rapidly changing environments.
Creativity is important to entrepreneurs because it is the first stage in the process of innovation, providing the stimulus for opportunity discovery and new venture creation. As new entrants, entrepreneurs often justify themselves upon the same dimensions as creativity: Arguably, one of the first tasks demanded of an entrepreneur is to manifest creative ability through the conceiving of new product-market opportunities and unique value propositions.
From these initial acts of creativity, entrepreneurs must build effective organizations that can repeatedly bring ideas to commercially valuable forms in order to survive and grow. This article begins with a brief review of perspectives on creativity in organizations and examines the interaction of personal attributes and the work context.
The relationship with innovation is distinguished next, with a view towards aligning appropriate activities with stage of development. In organizational contexts, creativity does not occur in isolation, and systems models that attempt to explain interaction effects are highlighted. The article concludes with specific recommendations to entrepreneurs in setting the creative climate internally and selling their ideas externally.
This article is targeted towards entrepreneurs seeking actionable knowledge from creativity research. Firstly, it is useful to begin with a clarification of what the creativity construct represents in modern usage.
Creativity has evolved from origins in mysticism and divine inspiration to being a key performance contributor in helping organizations adapt to changing environments.
There have been many conceptualizations of creativity over time, but research over the past fifty years has produced some consistent themes.
It has been defined variously as a process, as a product outcome, and in social constructionist terms. Creativity is most commonly described today as the generation or production of ideas that are novel and useful Amabile, ; Res.
In order to be useful, creative ideas must also be appropriate, that is, of potential value towards accomplishing desired goals. These ideas may reflect either a recombination of existing materials or an introduction of new materials to the organization James and Drown, Selection among alternatives is important; the task to be completed "must be open ended, rather than having a single, obvious solution" Amabile and Mueller, Although various qualifiers have been attached to creative activity, it remains central to the innovative capacity of modern organizations.
Following this viewpoint, Ford argues that creativity is a "domain-specific, subjective judgment of the novelty and value of an outcome of a particular action". The domain is a cultural aspect that includes the structured knowledge system that an individual must access and gain knowledge of, in order to create something new and make a change to the domain.
The criteria of novelty, usefulness, and value towards goals raise the question of who is to make that decision. Csikszentmihalyi argues that it is the experts within a domain who are the gatekeepers of such value judgments; they constitute "the field" and define what is creative.
In practice, gatekeepers of domains may extend well beyond the experts, to include anyone with influence within that domain Ford, In new product development for example, the field may include fellow developers, the CTO, an entrepreneur-leader, lead users, analysts, and investors.
The concept of lasting domain change as a test of creativity has the appeal of objectivity, however it also means that creativity may only be established after the fact.The Five Major Theories of Creativity. There are five major theories of creativity each with its own unique viewpoint on what creates creativity in people.
These theories are Psychoanalytical, Mental illness, Psychoticism, Addiction and Humanistic. The Psychoanalytical Theory of Creativity. Main Proponents of this theory: Freud, Jung, Kris.
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Creativity: theory, history, practice is the most thorough, creatively-devised, and exciting book on this subject that I have read to date. It is an essential resource for anyone in the worlds of creative writing or literary studies and its lively cross-cultural, interdisciplinary approach will .
Domain Specificity of Creativity: Theory, Research, and Practice. This paper will review research that demonstrates the domain specificity of creativity (including research in creative writing); explain what that research means in terms of our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying creativity in different domains; and suggest.
This presentation aims at boosting your creativity, whether you need it for your innovation processes, for your marketing and sales or for other purposes. It w. Domain Specificity of Creativity: Theory, Research, and Practice. This paper will review research that demonstrates the domain specificity of creativity (including research in creative writing); explain what that research means in terms of our understanding of the cognitive processes underlying creativity in different domains; and suggest.