Concluding Paragraph tutorial Essay Organization — Overview There are various types of writings assignments an instructor may give such as journals, reaction papers, questions to be answered, paragraphs on topics or questions, essays, and research papers. An essay is a writing on a specific question or topic. Instructors may vary in what they are expecting when they assign an essay. Always check with your instructor if you are not sure about what is expected.
Almost every piece of writing you do that is longer than a few sentences should be organized into paragraphs. This is because paragraphs show a reader where the subdivisions of an essay begin and end, and thus help the reader see the organization of the essay and grasp its main points.
Paragraphs can contain many different kinds of information. A paragraph could contain a series of brief examples or a single long illustration of a general point. It might describe a place, character, or process; narrate a series of events; compare or contrast two or more things; classify items into categories; or describe causes and effects.
Regardless of the kind of information they contain, all paragraphs share certain characteristics. One of the most important of these is a topic sentence. A topic sentence has several important functions: Readers generally look to the first few sentences in a paragraph to determine the subject and perspective of the paragraph.
Although most paragraphs should have a topic sentence, there are a few situations when a paragraph might not need a topic sentence.
For example, you might be able to omit a topic sentence in a paragraph that narrates a series of events, if a paragraph continues developing an idea that you introduced with a topic sentence in the previous paragraph, or if all the sentences and details in a paragraph clearly refer—perhaps indirectly—to a main point.
The vast majority of your paragraphs, however, should have a topic sentence. You can see this structure in paragraphs whether they are narrating, describing, comparing, contrasting, or analyzing information.
Each part of the paragraph plays an important role in communicating your meaning to your reader. The following paragraph illustrates this pattern of organization.
In front of the tiny pupil of the eye they put, on Mount Palomar, a great monocle inches in diameter, and with it see times farther into the depths of space. Or, if we want to see distant happenings on earth, they use some of the previously wasted electromagnetic waves to carry television images which they re-create as light by whipping tiny crystals on a screen with electrons in a vacuum.
Or they can bring happenings of long ago and far away as colored motion pictures, by arranging silver atoms and color-absorbing molecules to force light waves into the patterns of original reality.
Or if we want to see into the center of a steel casting or the chest of an injured child, they send the information on a beam of penetrating short-wave X rays, and then convert it back into images we can see on a screen or photograph.
If a paragraph is coherent, each sentence flows smoothly into the next without obvious shifts or jumps. A coherent paragraph also highlights the ties between old information and new information to make the structure of ideas or arguments clear to the reader.
If you have written a very long paragraph, one that fills a double-spaced typed page, for example, you should check it carefully to see if it should start a new paragraph where the original paragraph wanders from its controlling idea.Learn how to structure paragraphs with tips from University of Maryland University College's Effective Writing Center.
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Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama.
Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may .
Sentences such as data was (as well as data were) collected over a number of years are now widely accepted in standard English.” So I think it ultimately depends on the stylistic constraints of the piece of writing at hand and on the norms adopted by the academic institution you’re writing for / on behalf of.