Jump to navigation Jump to search The European exploration of Australia began at least as early as —, when seafarers first explored and mapped the Australian coastline. The first documented encounter was that of Dutch navigator Willem Janszoonin Dutch seafarers also visited the west and north coasts of the continent, as did French explorers.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. By they were convinced of the wealth of the Inca empire. When Pizarro, accompanied by his brothers, returned to Panama, Almagro was outraged by the vast powers Pizarro had acquired for himself.
Nevertheless, he continued to collaborate. Pizarro embarked for Peru in late or early with men. Establishing a base at San Miguel de Piura in the Sechura Desert of northern coastal Peru, Pizarro rode into the mountains to make contact with the Inca Atahuallpawho had recently been victorious in civil war against his half-brother Huascar and who was then encamped near Cajamarca with an army of about 30, soldiers.
The next day Atahuallpa was taken prisoner in the middle of the city square after he refused to accept Spanish suzerainty. After his agents had collected a large ransom for his promised release, Atahuallpa was executed for his presumed responsibility for the murder of Huascar.
In November the Spaniards occupied Cuzcothe Inca capital. The city of Quito was subdued, and Almagro left to conquer his domain of Chile. Pizarro organized a Spanish-type municipal government for Cuzco and in established a new city, Limaon the coast, to facilitate communications with Panama.
Lands were allotted to the conquerors, who were provided with a labour force by grants of encomiendaswhich enabled them to collect tribute from the Indians in a specific area.
Serious trouble then erupted. An unsuccessful Indian rebellion led by Manco Capac II in was followed by his retreat to the Vilcabamba region in the tropical forest north of Cuzco. Almagro was defeated and executed inbut his adherents continued to conspire with his son, and they succeeded in assassinating Francisco Pizarro in However, an agent of the Spanish crown, sent to establish order, refused to recognize the younger Almagro, who was captured and executed in The king of Spain, impelled by humanitarianism and by fear that the encomienda system might promote feudalismpromulgated in the New Lawswhich threatened the existence of the encomiendas that were so important to the conquerors.
Pizarro maintained control for two years until Pedro de la Gasca, a Spanish agent, undermined his power. Toledo adapted Indian institutions to the purposes of Spanish authority. He ordered Indian chieftains to administer local Indian affairs according to native customs and traditions and made them responsible for collecting tribute and providing forced labour.
Spanish agents corregidores were appointed to protect the interests of both crown and Indian in the Indian communities. Although ranching, agriculture, and commerce were carried on, the mining of precious metals, particularly silver, was the basic industry, making the colony the most important in the Spanish empire.
The centre of wealth and power for the entire region was the viceregal capital of Lima. There, during the 16th and 17th centuries, a series of viceroys ruled over most of Spanish South America. The elaborate viceregal court was the apex of a highly stratified society based upon forced Indian labour.
It attracted not only the politically oriented but also the wealthy, the artistic, and the intellectual. Lima was also important as seat of the audienciawhich administered royal justiceand as a religious, cultural, and commercial centre.
The archbishop of Lima was head of the church in Peru. Many religious orders established monasteries and convents there, and the tribunal of the Inquisition worked to extirpate religious heresy. In Lima also was the capstone of the educational system—the University of San Marcos.
Adding to the wealth and importance of Lima was the privileged position that its merchants enjoyed under the monopolistic Spanish trade system. Under the Spanish system the bulk of legitimate trade to and from these areas had to pass through merchants in Lima.According to popular history, Australia was first visited by Europeans when Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon “discovered” the continent in the early 17th century, and later fully explored by.
Jul 06, · European discovery and the colonisation of Australia It was first settled by Europeans in at Fort Dundas, Port Essington In control of the area was given to South Australia.
Claiming A Continent: A New History of Australia by David Day.
Soon, Australia's Aborigines were outnumbered by Europeans, and many were made to live on reserves. Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of Australia.
History of the Australian nation – State Library of NSW; The Australian History page at Project Gutenberg of Australia;. “The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice.” Mark Twain. Since the European invasion of Australia in , the Aboriginal people have been oppressed into a world unnatural to their existence for thousands of years.
“The very ink with which all history is written is merely fluid prejudice.” Mark Twain. Since the European invasion of Australia in , the Aboriginal people have been oppressed into a world unnatural to their existence for thousands of years. Australian History, briefly outlined with key dates and events in Australia's history.
the Europeans took the land as their own. The Indigenous people were driven out of their homes and many killed. Anzac troops in Europe including Gallipoli.
Australia experiences her first major losses in a war during in on the Gallipoli peninsula.